Balanced diet? Importance of maintaining a healthy diet

 

It is a fact that only a healthy diet defines your health destiny. Along with exercise and walk, healthy food leads to a healthy body. By picking up righteous food from the grocery store you will able to maintain body weight at the desired level because unhealthy foods make you more obese and this obesity may lead to various deadlier chronic diseases e.g. type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, and cancer, etc.

Importance of maintaining healthy diet

Components of the Immune system The immune system is vast enough as any country’s defense system. At various points checks posts have been built –up. Main weapons of this troop or components of the immunity are: 1. WBC (White Blood cell) 2. Antibodies 3. The Complement system 4. The lymphatic system 5. Spleen 6. Thymus 7. Bone Marrow To understand immunity and its components first of all we should know about four main types of pathogenic microbes. These are bacterias, pathogenic fungi, parasites, and viruses. Against specific pathogen adaptive immune response produces antibodies. An adaptive immune response is an eternal modification as an adaptation to infection with pathogenic microbes. Phagocytic cells e.g., macrophages digest these pathogenic microbes. These macrophages are instantly accessible to fight against these pathogens and are the main components of the innate immune system. Production of antibodies only possible after infection and specific antibodies are produced against a wide scale of antigens these antigens trigger the production of antibodies. Components of the immune system Responses of both the adaptive immune response and innate immunity depend upon the activities of WBC. Key components of the innate immunity are granulocytes and macrophages. The main components of the Adaptive immune system are lymphocytes that provide lifetime immunity. Adaptive and Innate Immune system both in collaboration builds up a powerful defense system. Due to these strong immune systems, in this world full of infectious microbes we become ill infrequently. Numerous inflammations can be overcome by innate immune systems and no disease occurs while other infections which can’t be determined by innate immune system it will stimulate adaptive immunity and then easily cured by remaining immunological memory. Leukocytes arbitrate immune response and these leukocytes are derived from progenitors or precursors in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic Stem Cells These stem cells induce production of lymphocytes and myeloid these lymphocytes are accountable for adaptive immunity and myeloid lineages have role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Granulocytes These include Neutrophils, eosinophil, and basophils and they are circulated in the blood act as effector cells at sites of inflammation. Macrophages and mast cells are involved in the differentiation of tissues and work as effector cells and stimulates inflammation. Macrophages engulf bacteria and Switch on other phagocytic cells which are neutrophils. Mast cells are responsible to arrange defense mechanisms against pathogenic parasites and stimulate allergic soreness and they further manage eosinophils and basophils which are exocytic. Immature phagocytes e.g., dendritic cells penetrate in tissues and start engulfing antigens. Then these dendritic cells with antigens go towards lymphoid tissues. Two types of lymphocytes • B lymphocytes: These become matured in the bone marrow. • T lymphocytes: Their maturation spot is present in the thymus. Bone marrow and thymus are primary lymphoid organs while mature lymphocytes recirculate in blood by secondary lymphoid organs through lymphatic vessels. When a recirculating T cell recognizes specific antigen on the surface of a dendritic cell it will stimulate the adaptive immune system. Secondary lymphoid tissues are of three types as spleen this spleen capture antigen from bloodstream then lymph nodes caught antigen from the spot of infection in the tissues and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which collect antigen from epithelial surface of the body. Adaptive immune responses begin in these secondary lymphoid tissues in which T cells that meet with antigen then these T cells will multiply and change into antigen-specific effector cells and B cells will grow, multiply and transform into antibody-secreting cells. Now come back to the main discussion which is components of the immune system. It is clear to some extent that cells of the immune system mainly produced in the bone marrow where some become matured and then move from here to protect peripheral tissues by circulating in the bloodstream and through the lymphatic system The main weapons that are white blood originated from precursors in the bone marrow. Red blood cells that are responsible for the transport of oxygen, platelets that are involved in blood clotting at a damaged portion in the body, and WBCs are all obtained by hematopoietic cells or pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells which are precursor cells in the bone marrow. These stem cells produce different types of blood cells. Myeloid Progenitor The precursor of the granulocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells of the immune system is the myeloid progenitor. Macrophages Macrophages play important role in innate immunity. They are the mature shape of monocytes, these monocytes circulate in the blood and covert continuously into macrophages upon transportation into the tissues. Dendritic cells These cells catch an antigen and exposed it for identification by lymphatic cells. Migration of immature dendritic cells from blood to stay in tissues and then phagocytic and macro-pinocytosis start digesting a massive amount of fluid which is outside from the cells. When these cells came across a pathogen they quickly become mature and move towards lymph nodes. When these dendritic cells are attacked by pathogen these become mature enough and move towards lymph nodes. Mast Cells Precursors of mast cells are not well defined, however, these mast cells also differentiate in the tissues they stay near the blood vessels and after activation, these release their substances which affect vascular permeability. Mat cells have a role to plan and arrange allergic responses and protect mucosal surfaces against antigens. Granulocytes Granulocytes or polymorphnuclear leukocytes have granules in their cytoplasm. Three types of granulocytes are Neutrophils: Most important component of the immune system, its deficiency leads to increases in bacterial infections. Eosinophil: Eosinophils have role against parasitic infection. Basophils: Its function is same as eosinophils and mast cells. Lymphoid precursor This progenitor gives rise to the lymphocytes. Two types of lymphocytes B lymphocytes: When these are activated these are differentiated into plasma cells that secrete antibodies. T lymphocytes: There are two main classes of T cells, one class convert into cytotoxic T cells on activation which kill virally infected cells, while another class activates other cells like B cells and macrophages. Maturation of lymphocytes in bone marrow or Thymus Lymphoid organs are well-characterized tissues having plenty of lymphocytes with non-lymphoid cells. In lymphoid organs, there is an interaction between lymphocytes with non-lymphoid cells for development, initiation of adaptive immune responses, and long-lasting lymphocytes. Two main types of lymphoid organs: Central or primary lymphoid organs include bone marrow and thymus organ in the upper chest here lymphocytes are produced. Both B and T lymphocytes are generating in the bone marrow while just B lymphocytes become mature in the bone marrow. For maturation of T cells, these T cells go towards Thymus. B cells are known as B cells because these are derived from Bone marrow and T cells are derived from Thymus so their name is T cell because their origin is Thymus. After maturation of both types of lymphocytes both launched into the blood circulation and through bloodstream both move towards secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs. The next step of the defense system is that the peripheral or secondary lymphoid organs are ready to capture antigen and permit the inauguration of adaptive immune responses and provide signals to support recirculating lymphocytes. The antigen can move into the body in many ways and causes infection or inflammation anywhere but suddenly attacked by secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs i.e., the spleen, lymph nodes, and by mucosal lymphoid tissues. Lymphocytes are also recirculating in these tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, and mucosal lymphoid tissues) where the antigen is brought from the spot of infection. These antigens are initially present within macrophages and dendritic cells. After maturation of dendritic cells then these matured dendritic cells will expose antigen to lymphocytes. Lymph Nodes These are well-organized structures and their location is at the merging points of blood vessels or the lymphatic system which is a system of vessels for collection of extracellular fluid from tissues and again return it to the bloodstream. Lymph This extracellular fluid which is produced consistently by filtration from the blood is known as lymph. And the vessels are called lymphatic vessels. Location of spleen The spleen is a palm-sized organ behind the stomach which gathers antigen from the blood. It also accumulates and destroys old red blood cells. It’s the main spot of disposal of old red blood cells. Despite the different appearance of the lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues all work on the same rule i.e., capturing or trapping antigen from the point of infection and stimulating an adaptive immune response. The peripheral or secondary lymphoid tissues provide signals to the lymphocytes that do not attack by their particular antigen, so these lymphocytes continue to live and recirculate until they come across with their specific antigen. This process is necessary to sustain the correct numbers of circulating T and B lymphocytes and make sure that only potential lymphocytes for an antigenic response should survive. Lymphocytes circulate between blood and lymph. Small B and T lymphocytes that completed their maturation in the bone marrow and thymus but have not still attacked by antigen are known as naïve or natural lymphocytes. These cells circulate constantly from the blood into the peripheral or secondary lymphoid tissues, where they enter by compression between the cells of capillary walls. They are then returned to the blood through the lymphatic vessels or, in the case of the spleen, return directly to the blood. When any infection appears lymphocytes identify the infectious factor and then this lymphocyte is pick up by lymphoid tissues where it multiplies and convert into effector cells which are necessary to cope up with the infection. When a huge amount of antigens are absorbed by dendritic cells which move towards lymph nodes via afferent lymphatic vessels. In these lymph nodes, these dendritic cells expose antigen to T lymphocytes and these T lymphocytes will activate B cells which will capture antigens. After these antigen-specific lymphocytes will multiply and differentiated making lymph nodes as effector cells and peripheral lymphoid tissues will initiate an adaptive immune response. Diffused mucosal lymphoid tissues will emerge in response to infection and then vanished. And then they will appear as more organized during infection e.g., B cell follicles of the lymph nodes enlarged as B lymphocytes, multiply and the entire lymph node will be expanded this phenomenon is known as swollen glands. Principles of innate and adaptive immunity Front Line soldiers Macrophages and neutrophils of the innate immune system provide defense against many microbes and are important for the elimination of various common bacterial infections. However, they cannot always remove infectious agents and cannot identify some pathogenic agents. Second Line troop To cover up these front line soldier’s lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system jump into the battle and ensures more strong defense system and protect against reinfection with the identical and same pathogen. It takes 4-7 days to initiate adaptive immune response so in this duration, the innate immune system has a crucial role. Function of antibodies Antibodies deal with pathogens and their toxic products. These are the foremost products of adaptive immune response found in fluid elements of blood, plasma, and in extracellular fluids. Immunity stimulated by antibodies is known as humoral immunity. Antibodies bind to the pathogen and restrict their toxic products by obstructing their approach towards body cells. This process is known as neutralization which is important for protection against pathogenic toxins. Just binding of antibodies with pathogens is not enough to stop the replication of bacteria that proliferates from outside of the cells. In this way antibody allows a phagocytic cell to engulf and dispose of bacteria. This is necessary for many bacteria that are resistant to direct recognition by phagocytes instead the phagocytes identify the constant region of antibodies coating the bacterium. The covering of pathogens and foreign particles in this way is known as opsonization. The compliment System System of plasma protein is known as a complement system that is activated by antibodies or without the help of antibodies on many microbial surfaces which is helpful to innate as well as adaptive immunity. Pore formation by activation of complement substances directly smash bacteria and this process is necessary for some bacterial infections. However, the main purpose of the complement system is to coat antigens with antibodies and make engulfing possible by phagocytes to demolish bacteria’s which may remain unrecognized if not assisted with the complement system. Complement also increases the germicidal performance of phagocytes in other words it “Complements” the activities of antibodies. It's all about components of the immune system.
importance of maintaining a healthy diet

Be smart when you are deciding your future health by making good and healthy food choices. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are increasing in youngsters because this population is literally following junk food behavior as a result they become overweight which causes high blood pressure and high blood glucose level. Parents should give much attention to establish healthy food behavior at childhood level because it is the time when children adopt various habits otherwise they will acquire a destructive eating lifestyle. So maintaining a healthy diet is the first gift that parents can give to their children.

Most people ignore the link between diet, weight, and other chronic diseases but after reading this article they will be clear about these interconnected and related factors. This is not much difficult to follow a healthy diet plan because it does not only consist of green leaves and veggies, you will further learn that according to your taste which food items or their alternatives can be add in your diet chart which will maintain your overall health.

 

What is a balanced diet?

A balanced diet not only contains green leaves in the bowl but it should have all other nutrients along with vitamins and minerals like healthy fats, carbohydrates, and proteins which is necessary for the body’s proper functioning.

For maintenance of a healthy diet plan first of all you have to get information about calories and the number of calories in a balanced diet. Calories are referred to as the amount of energy in a food that is required which is used by the body for all of its functions like walking and breathing, etc. The number of calories varies according to gender, age, and physical activities various researches designed a calorie planner according to variable conditions.

Person

Age

No of calories

Sedentary children

 2–8 years

1,000–1,400

Active children

2-8 years

1,000-2,000

Females

9-13 years

1,4000-2,200

Males

9-13 years

1,600-2,600

Active females

14-30 years

2400

Sedentary females

14-30 years

1,800-2,000

Active males

14-30 years

2,800-3,200

Sedentary males

14-30 years

2,000-2600

Active people

30 years and over

2,000-3,000

Sedentary people

30 years and over

1,600-2,400

 

A Healthy Platter

Half a portion of the plate should contain veggies, salads, and fruits.

Over one quarter must be whole grains.

Under one quarter should contain proteinaceous food items.

Dairy products should also be added.

Now we jump into the details of ingredient in a healthy plate

Fresh fruits

Balanced diet? Importance of maintaining a healthy diet

Apple, pomegranate, grapes, guava, orange, and thousands of fruits are included in fresh fruits that provide vitamins and minerals.

Fresh vegetables

Balanced diet? Importance of maintaining a healthy dietFresh veggies must be added in your daily life because these are natural antibiotics that protect against various health problems and easily digestible there is no need to tell about a huge list of vegetables. After all, already enough data is present about different vegetables and their miraculous properties. Anyhow some fresh vegetables are spinach, okra, “Ghia-Kadu” or pumpkin, sponge gourd, broccoli, cauliflowers, and eggplant or brinjal, etc.

Salads

Balanced diet? Importance of maintaining a healthy dietSalads not only decorate your platter but are a nutrient-rich mixture of different food items like cabbage, sweet potato, cucumber, avocados, capsicum, edible mushrooms, tomato, onion, carrots, etc.

Salads are of different types and their recipes vary like Russian salad, Greek salad, Thai salad, Asian style chopped salad, Nicoise salad, Vietnamese chicken salad, traditional Caesar salad, and so on.

Whole grains

Balanced diet? Importance of maintaining a healthy dietWhole grains portion can be one of these types of whole grains e.g., whole oats, whole wheat, whole grain rye, bulger wheat, millet, whole barley, and quinoa, etc.

Protein Portion of the platter may contain red meat or boiled chicken, grilled fish, beans, peas, nuts, and other legumes.

Dairy Products

Balanced diet? Importance of maintaining a healthy dietThese may include less amount of cheese, butter, and enough quantity of yogurt which provides probiotics and helpful for digestion.

Carbohydrate

Balanced diet? Importance of maintaining a healthy dietYour platter should contain carbohydrates but not more than a limited amount like boiled rice, potatoes, and wheat, etc. Carbohydrates are necessary to put you in an energetic mode.

Maintaining a healthy diet impacts other factors

Importance of maintaining a healthy diet is now clear to some extent furthermore it is helpful in

Weight loss

As discussed earlier if you eat healthy foods you will never become obese or overweight.

Improves gut health

Probiotics from the yogurt will upgrade gastrointestinal tract health.

Better memory

When you take dry fruits like almonds, nuts, and other fruits like coconut, etc then these key ingredients will be proved as memory boosters and will enhance its quality.

Strong bones and teeth

Calcium present in milk products which is necessary for strong bones and teeth.so dairy products are also included in a healthy platter which is enough for powerful white teeth and bones.

Improves Eyesight

Fruits like mango and salads like carrots are more than enough to improve your eyesight.

Strong Immune system

The immune system can only work when it is provided with a healthy diet because only a healthy diet may act as a fuel for our defense system to fight against various types of infections.

Prevents chronic diseases

Chronic diseases like diabetes, cancer, heart diseases, and hypertension can only eradicate by planning a healthy diet chart.

Improves sleep quality

Nothing is more terrible than insomnia but you can get rid of this horrifying discomfort by adopting a healthy diet style.

Improves mood swings

What is more important than our mood when internally we don’t feel fresh or happy even good weather can’t help us to make us cherish so pick healthy food for a happy mood.

 

  • Replace your soft drinks and alcohol with herbal tea and plenty of water.
  • Avoid processed and junk foods.
  • Limit meat consumption to some extent.
  • Particularly during this COVID-19 pandemic take good care of a healthy diet plan.

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